Since the first browser war between Netscape and Internet Explorer, web browsers
have been using features as their primary means of competing with each other.
This strategy of unlimited scope and perpetual feature creep is reckless, and
has been allowed to go on for far too long.
I used wget to download all 1,217 of the W3C specifications
which have been published at the time of writing, of which web browsers need
to implement a substantial subset in order to provide a modern web experience.
I ran a word count on all of these specifications. How complex would you guess
the web is?
The total word count of the W3C specification catalogue is 114 million words at
the time of writing. If you added the combined word counts of the C11, C++17,
UEFI, USB 3.2, and POSIX specifications, all 8,754 published RFCs, and the
combined word counts of everything on Wikipedia’s list of longest
novels, you would be 12 million words short of the W3C
I conclude that it is impossible to build a new web browser. The complexity
of the web is obscene. The creation of a new web browser would be comparable
in effort to the Apollo program or the Manhattan project.
It is impossible to:
- Implement the web correctly
- Implement the web securely
- Implement the web at all
Starting a bespoke browser engine with the intention of competing with Google or
Mozilla is a fool’s errand. The last serious attempt to make a new browser,
Servo, has become one part incubator for Firefox refactoring, one part
playground for bored Mozilla engineers to mess with technology no one wants, and
zero parts viable modern web browser. But WebVR is cool, right? Right?
The consequences of this are obvious. Browsers are the most expensive piece of
software a typical consumer computer runs. They’re infamous for using all of
your RAM, pinning CPU and I/O, draining your battery, etc. Web browsers are
responsible for more than 8,000 CVEs.
Because of the monopoly created by the insurmountable task of building a
competitive alternative, browsers have also been free to stop being the “user
agent” and start being the agents of their creators instead. Firefox is filling
up with ads, tracking, and mandatory plugins. Chrome is used as a means for
Google to efficiently track your eyeballs and muscle anti-technologies like DRM
and AMP into the ecosystem. The browser duopoly is only growing stronger, too,
as Microsoft drops Edge and WebKit falls well behind its competition.
The major projects are open source, and usually when an open-source project
misbehaves, we’re able to to fork them to offer an alternative. But even this
is an impossible task where web browsers are concerned. The number of W3C
specifications grows at an average rate of 200 new specs per year, or about 4
million words, or about one POSIX every 4 to 6 months. How can a new team
possibly keep up with this on top of implementing the outrageous scope web
browsers already have now?
The browser wars have been allowed to continue for far too long. They should
have long ago focused on competing in terms of performance and stability, not in
adding new web “features”. This is absolutely ridiculous, and it has to stop.
Note: I have prepared a write-up on how I arrived at these word counts.